Section: User Commands (1)
Updated: xorg-server 1.16.4
Xorg is a full featured X server that was originally designed for UNIX and UNIX-like operating systems running on Intel x86 hardware. It now runs on a wider range of hardware and OS platforms.
This work was derived by the X.Org Foundation from the XFree86 Project's XFree86 4.4rc2 release. The XFree86 release was originally derived from X386 1.2 by Thomas Roell which was contributed to X11R5 by Snitily Graphics Consulting Service.
Xorg operates under a wide range of operating systems and hardware platforms. The Intel x86 (IA32) architecture is the most widely supported hardware platform. Other hardware platforms include Compaq Alpha, Intel IA64, AMD64, SPARC and PowerPC. The most widely supported operating systems are the free/OpenSource UNIX-like systems such as Linux, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, and Solaris. Commercial UNIX operating systems such as UnixWare are also supported. Other supported operating systems include GNU Hurd. Mac OS X is supported with the Xquartz?(1) X server. Win32/Cygwin is supported with the XWin?(1) X server.
Xorg supports connections made using the following reliable byte-streams:
For operating systems that support local connections other than Unix Domain sockets (SVR3 and SVR4), there is a compiled-in list specifying the order in which local connections should be attempted. This list can be overridden by the XLOCAL environment variable described below. If the display name indicates a best-choice connection should be made (e.g. :0.0), each connection mechanism is tried until a connection succeeds or no more mechanisms are available. Note: for these OSs, the Unix Domain socket connection is treated differently from the other local connection types. To use it the connection must be made to unix:0.0.
The XLOCAL environment variable should contain a list of one more more of the following:
NAMED PTS SCO ISC
which represent SVR4 Named Streams pipe, Old-style USL Streams pipe, SCO XSight Streams pipe, and ISC Streams pipe, respectively. You can select a single mechanism (e.g. XLOCAL=NAMED), or an ordered list (e.g. XLOCAL="NAMED:PTS:SCO"). his variable overrides the compiled-in defaults. For SVR4 it is recommended that NAMED be the first preference connection. The default setting is PTS:NAMED:ISC:SCO.
To globally override the compiled-in defaults, you should define (and export if using sh or ksh) XLOCAL globally. If you use startx?(1) or xinit?(1), the definition should be at the top of your .xinitrc file. If you use xdm?(1), the definitions should be early on in the /usr/lib/X11/xdm/Xsession script.
Xorg supports several mechanisms for supplying/obtaining configuration and run-time parameters: command line options, environment variables, the (5) configuration files, auto-detection, and fallback defaults. When the same information is supplied in more than one way, the highest precedence mechanism is used. The list of mechanisms is ordered from highest precedence to lowest. Note that not all parameters can be supplied via all methods. The available command line options and environment variables (and some defaults) are described here and in the Xserver?(1) manual page. Most configuration file parameters, with their defaults, are described in the (5) manual page. Driver and module specific configuration parameters are described in the relevant driver or module manual page.
The Xorg server is normally configured to recognize various special combinations of key presses that instruct the server to perform some action, rather than just sending the key press event to a client application. These actions depend on the XKB keymap loaded by a particular keyboard device and may or may not be available on a given configuration.
The following key combinations are commonly part of the default XKEYBOARD keymap.
Xorg typically uses a configuration file called xorg.conf and configuration files with the suffix .conf in a directory called xorg.conf.d for its initial setup. Refer to the (5) manual page for information about the format of this file.
Xorg has a mechanism for automatically generating a built-in configuration at run-time when no xorg.conf file or xorg.conf.d files are present. The current version of this automatic configuration mechanism works in two ways.
The first is via enhancements that have made many components of the xorg.conf file optional. This means that information that can be probed or reasonably deduced doesn't need to be specified explicitly, greatly reducing the amount of built-in configuration information that needs to be generated at run-time.
The second is to have "safe" fallbacks for most configuration information. This maximises the likelihood that the Xorg server will start up in some usable configuration even when information about the specific hardware is not available.
The automatic configuration support for Xorg is work in progress. It is currently aimed at the most popular hardware and software platforms supported by Xorg. Enhancements are planned for future releases.
The Xorg server config files can be found in a range of locations. These are documented fully in the (5) manual page. The most commonly used locations are shown here.
X?(7), Xserver?(1), xdm?(1), xinit?(1), (5), xvidtune?(1), xkeyboard-config (7), apm?(4), ati?(4), chips?(4), cirrus?(4), cyrix?(4), fbdev?(4), glide?(4), glint?(4), i128?(4), i740?(4), imstt?(4), intel?(4), mga?(4), neomagic?(4), nsc?(4), nv?(4), openchrome (4), r128?(4), rendition?(4), s3virge?(4), siliconmotion?(4), sis?(4), sunbw2?(4), suncg14?(4), suncg3?(4), suncg6?(4), sunffb?(4), sunleo?(4), suntcx?(4), tdfx?(4), tga?(4), trident?(4), tseng?(4), v4l?(4), vesa?(4), vmware?(4),
Web site <http://www.x.org>.
Xorg has many contributors world wide. The names of most of them can be found in the documentation, ChangeLog files in the source tree, and in the actual source code.
Xorg was originally based on XFree86 4.4rc2. That was originally based on X386 1.2 by Thomas Roell, which was contributed to the then X Consortium's X11R5 distribution by SGCS.
Xorg is released by the X.Org Foundation.
The project that became XFree86 was originally founded in 1992 by David Dawes, Glenn Lai, Jim Tsillas and David Wexelblat.
XFree86 was later integrated in the then X Consortium's X11R6 release by a group of dedicated XFree86 developers, including the following:
Stuart Anderson email@example.com Doug Anson firstname.lastname@example.org Gertjan Akkerman email@example.com Mike Bernson firstname.lastname@example.org Robin Cutshaw robin@XFree86.org David Dawes dawes@XFree86.org Marc Evans marc@XFree86.org Pascal Haible email@example.com Matthieu Herrb Matthieu.Herrb@laas.fr Dirk Hohndel hohndel@XFree86.org David Holland firstname.lastname@example.org Alan Hourihane email@example.com Jeffrey Hsu firstname.lastname@example.org Glenn Lai email@example.com Ted Lemon firstname.lastname@example.org Rich Murphey rich@XFree86.org Hans Nasten email@example.com Mark Snitily firstname.lastname@example.org Randy Terbush email@example.com Jon Tombs tombs@XFree86.org Kees Verstoep firstname.lastname@example.org Paul Vixie email@example.com Mark Weaver Mark_Weaver@brown.edu David Wexelblat dwex@XFree86.org Philip Wheatley Philip.Wheatley@ColumbiaSC.NCR.COM Thomas Wolfram firstname.lastname@example.org Orest Zborowski email@example.com
Xorg source is available from the FTP server <ftp://ftp.x.org/>, and from the X.Org server <http://gitweb.freedesktop.org/>. Documentation and other information can be found from the X.Org web site <http://www.x.org/>.
Xorg is copyright software, provided under licenses that permit modification and redistribution in source and binary form without fee. Xorg is copyright by numerous authors and contributors from around the world. Licensing information can be found at <http://www.x.org>. Refer to the source code for specific copyright notices.
XFree86(TM) is a trademark of The XFree86 Project, Inc.
X11(TM) and X Window System(TM) are trademarks of The Open Group.
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