Codex

LS

Section: User Commands (1)

Updated: March 2015

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NAME

ls - list directory contents

SYNOPSIS

ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...

DESCRIPTION

List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default). Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort is specified.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

-a, --all
do not ignore entries starting with .:
-A, --almost-all
do not list implied . and ..:
--author
with -l, print the author of each file:
-b, --escape
print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters:
--block-size=SIZE
scale sizes by SIZE before printing them; e.g., '--block-size=M' prints sizes in units of 1,048,576 bytes; see SIZE format below:
-B, --ignore-backups
do not list implied entries ending with ~:
-c
with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of file status information); with -l: show ctime and sort by name; otherwise: sort by ctime, newest first:
-C
list entries by columns:
--color[=WHEN]
colorize the output; WHEN can be 'never', 'auto', or 'always' (the default); more info below:
-d, --directory
list directories themselves, not their contents:
-D, --dired
generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode:
-f
do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color:
-F, --classify
append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries:
--file-type
likewise, except do not append '*':
--format=WORD
across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C:
--full-time
like -l --time-style=full-iso:
-g
like -l, but do not list owner:
--group-directories-first
group directories before files;can be augmented with a --sort option, but any use of --sort=none (-U) disables grouping:
-G, --no-group
in a long listing, don't print group names:
-h, --human-readable
with -l and/or -s, print human readable sizes (e.g., 1K 234M 2G):
--si
likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024:
-H, --dereference-command-line
follow symbolic links listed on the command line:
--dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir
follow each command line symbolic linkthat points to a directory:
--hide=PATTERN
do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden by -a or -A):
--indicator-style=WORD
append indicator with style WORD to entry names: none (default), slash (-p), file-type (--file-type), classify (-F):
-i, --inode
print the index number of each file:
-I, --ignore=PATTERN
do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN:
-k, --kibibytes
default to 1024-byte blocks for disk usage:
-l
use a long listing format:
-L, --dereference
when showing file information for a symbolic link, show information for the file the link references rather than for the link itself:
-m
fill width with a comma separated list of entries:
-n, --numeric-uid-gid
like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs:
-N, --literal
print raw entry names (don't treat e.g. control characters specially):
-o
like -l, but do not list group information:
-p, --indicator-style=slash
append / indicator to directories:
-q, --hide-control-chars
print ? instead of nongraphic characters:
--show-control-chars
show nongraphic characters as-is (the default, unless program is 'ls' and output is a terminal):
-Q, --quote-name
enclose entry names in double quotes:
--quoting-style=WORD
use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell, shell-always, c, escape:
-r, --reverse
reverse order while sorting:
-R, --recursive
list subdirectories recursively:
-s, --size
print the allocated size of each file, in blocks:
-S
sort by file size:
--sort=WORD
sort by WORD instead of name: none (-U), size (-S), time (-t), version (-v), extension (-X):
--time=WORD
with -l, show time as WORD instead of default modification time: atime or access or use (-u) ctime or status (-c); also use specified time as sort key if --sort=time:
-time-style=STYLE
with -l', show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale, or +FORMAT; FORMAT is interpreted like in 'date'; if FORMAT is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, then FORMAT1 applies to non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is prefixed with 'posix, STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX locale:
-t
sort by modification time, newest first:
-T, --tabsize=COLS
assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8:
-u
with -lt: sort by, and show, access time; with -l: show access time and sort by name; otherwise: sort by access time:
-U
do not sort; list entries in directory order:
-v
natural sort of (version) numbers within text:
-w, --width=COLS
assume screen width instead of current value:
-x
list entries by lines instead of by columns:
-X
sort alphabetically by entry extension:
-Z, --context
print any security context of each file:
-1
list one file per line:
--help
display this help and exit:
--version
output version information and exit:

The SIZE argument is an integer and optional unit (example: 10K is 10*1024). Units are K,M,G,T,P,E,Z,Y (powers of 1024) or KB,MB,... (powers of 1000).

Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and with --color=never. With --color=auto, ls emits color codes only when standard output is connected to a terminal. The LS_COLORS environment variable can change the settings. Use the dircolors command to set it.

Exit status:

0
if OK,:
1
if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),:
2
if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).:

AUTHOR

Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.

REPORTING BUGS

GNU coreutils online help: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>

Report ls translation bugs to <http://translationproject.org/team/>

COPYRIGHT

Copyright © 2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc. License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.

This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

SEE ALSO

Full documentation at: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/ls>

or available locally via: info '(coreutils) ls invocation'


Index

NAME

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

Exit status:

AUTHOR

REPORTING BUGS

COPYRIGHT

SEE ALSO


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